RIG VEDA

 

RIG VEDA – BOOK THE FIRST

HYMN VII. Indra.

9 Indra who rules with single sway men, riches, and the fivefold race
Of those who dwell upon the earth.
10 For your sake from each side we call Indra away from other men:
Ours, and none others’, may he be.

HYMN IX. Indra.

3 O Lord of all men, fair of cheek, rejoice thee in the gladdening lauds,
Present at these drink-offerings.

HYMN XXIV. Varuna and Others.

10 Whither by day depart the constellations that shine at night, set high in heaven above us
Varuna’s holy laws remain unweakened, and through the night the Moon moves on in splendour.
11 I ask this of thee with my prayer adoring; thy worshipper craves this with his oblation.
Varuna, stay thou here and be not angry; steal not our life from us, O thou Wide-Ruler.
14 With bending down, oblations, sacrifices, O Varuna, we deprecate thine anger:
Wise Asura, thou King of wide dominion, loosen the bonds of sins by us committed.
15 Loosen the bonds, O Varuna, that hold me, loosen the bonds above, between, and under.
So in thy holy law may we made sinless belong to Aditi, O thou Aditya.

HYMN XXXII. Indra.

1 I WILL declare the manly deeds of Indra, the first that he achieved, the Thunder-wielder.
He slew the Dragon, then disclosed the waters, and cleft the channels of the mountain torrents. {verse 11, below, suggests the Aryans destroyed a dam on a river, a river which flowed to the ocean. Clearly, these are not inland rivers such as those of Bactria and Margiana, which drain to inland seas}
2 He slew the Dragon lying on the mountain: his heavenly bolt of thunder Tvastar fashioned.
Like lowing kine in rapid flow descending the waters glided downward to the ocean.
3 Impetuous as a bull, he chose the Soma and in three sacred beakers drank the juices.
Maghavan grasped the thunder for his weapon, and smote to death this firstborn of the dragons.
4 When, Indra, thou hadst slain the dragon’s firstborn, and overcome the charms of the enchanters, {a reference to the religion of the Harappans}
Then, giving life to Sun and Dawn and Heaven, thou foundest not one foe to stand against thee.
5 Indra with his own great and deadly thunder smote into pieces Vrtra, worst of Vrtras.
As trunks of trees, what time the axe hath felled them, low on the earth so lies the prostrate Dragon.
6 He, like a mad weak warrior, challenged Indra, the great impetuous
many-slaying Hero.
He,  brooking not the clashing of the weapons, crushed – Indra’s foe – the
shattered forts in falling.
7 Footless and handless still he challenged Indra, who smote him with his bolt between the shoulders.
Emasculate yet claiming manly vigour, thus Vrtra lay with scattered limbs dissevered.
8 There as he lies like a bank-bursting river, the waters taking courage
flow above him.
The Dragon lies beneath the feet of torrents which Vrtra with his greatness
had encompassed.
9 Then humbled was the strength of Vrtra’s mother: Indra hath cast his
deadly bolt against her.
The mother was above, the son was under and like a cow beside her calf lay
Danu.
10 Rolled in the midst of never-ceasing currents flowing without a rest for
ever onward.
The waters bear off Vrtra’s nameless body: the foe of Indra sank to during darkness.
11 Guarded by Ahi stood he thralls of Dasas, the waters stayed like kine
held by the robber.
But he, when he had smitten Vrtra, opened the cave wherein the floods had been imprisoned.

HYMN XXXIII. Indra.

4 Thou slewest with thy bolt the wealthy Dasyu, alone, yet going with thy helpers, Indra!
Far from the floor of heaven in all directions, the ancient riteless ones
fled to destruction. {riteless, i.e. irreligious, from the Aryan point of view, as the Jewish-derived religions consider others pagan or heathen}
5 Fighting with pious worshippers, the riteless turned and fled, Indra! with averted faces.
When thou, fierce Lord of the Bay Steeds, the Stayer, blewest from earth and
heaven and sky the godless.
6 They met in fight the army of the blameless: then the Navagvas put forth
all their power. {blameless, i.e. those loyal to the gods}
They, like emasculates with men contending, fled, conscious, by steep paths
from Indra, scattered.
7 Whether they weep or laugh, thou hast o’erthrown them, O Indra, on the sky’s extremest limit.
The Dasyu thou hast burned from heaven, and welcomed the prayer of him who pours the juice and lauds thee. {i.e. those who win the gods’ favour}
8 Adorned with their array of gold and jewels, they o’er the earth a covering veil extended. {gold & jewels … the wealth of Harappa}
Although they hastened, they o’ercame not Indra: their spies he compassed with the Sun of morning.
9 As thou enjoyest heaven and earth, O Indra, on every side surrounded with thy greatness,
So thou with priests bast blown away the Dasyu, and those who worship not with those who worship.
14 Indra, thou helpest Kutsa whom thou lovedst, and guardedst brave Dagadyu
when he battled,
The dust of trampling horses rose to heaven, and Svitri’s son stood up again
for conquest.

HYMN LI. Indra.

4 Thou hast unclosed the prisons of the waters; thou hast in the mountain seized the treasure rich in gifts. {mountain … perhaps a temple?}
When thou hadst slain with might the dragon Vrtra, thou, Indra, didst raise the Sun in heaven for all to see.
5 With wondrous might thou blewest enchanter fiends away, with powers celestial those who called on thee in jest. {implies that the Harappans deride the gods}
Thou, hero-hearted, hast broken down Pipru’s forts, and helped Rjisvan when the Dasyus were struck dead.
6 Thou savedst Kutsa when Susna was smitten down; to Atithigva gavest Sambara for a prey.
E’en mighty Arbuda thou troddest under foot: thou from of old wast born to strike the Dasyus dead.

HYMN LIII. Indra.

7 Thou goest on from fight to fight intrepidly, destroying castle after castle here with strength.
Thou, Indra, with thy friend who makes the foe bow down, slewest from far away the guileful Namuci.

8 Thou hast struck down in death Karanja, Parnaya, in Atithigva’s very glorious going forth.
Unyielding, when Rjisvan compassed them with siege, thou hast destroyed the hundred forts of Vangrida.

9 With all-outstripping chariot-wheel, O Indra, thou far-famed, hast overthrown the twice ten Kings of men,
With sixty thousand nine-and-ninety followers, who came in arms to fight with friendless Susravas.

HYMN LIV. Indra.

10 There darkness stood, the vault that stayed the waters’ flow: in Vrtra’s hollow side the rain-cloud lay concealed.
But Indra smote the rivers which the obstructer stayed, flood following after flood, down steep declivities.

HYMN LXIII. Indra.

4 That, as a friend, thou furtheredst, O Indra, when, Thundcrer, strong in
act, thou crushedst Vrtra;
When, Hero, thou, great-souled, with easy conquest didst rend the Dasyus in
their distant dwelling.
7 Warring for Purukutsa thou, O Indra, Thunder-armed! breakest down the seven castles;
Easily, for Sudis, like grass didst rend them, and out of need, King, broughtest gain to Puru.

HYMN LXXI. Agni.

7 All sacrificial viands wait on Agni as the Seven mighty Rivers seek the ocean. {these are not the rivers of Bactria, which drain to inland seas}
Not by our brethren was our food discovered: find with the Gods care for us, thou who knowest.

HYMN LXXII. Agni.

8 Knowing the Law, the seven strong floods from heaven, full of good thought, discerned the doors of riches. {Good Thought: seems a Zoroastrian-like expression; riches: booty from the Harappans}
Sarama found the cattle’s firm-built prison whereby the race of man is still supported. {men, i.e. the Aryans; cattle prison implies stock yards}

HYMN LXXX. Indra.

10 Indra hath smitten down the power of Vrtra, might with stronger might.
This was his manly exploit, he slew Vrtra and let loose the floods, lauding his own imperial sway.
13 When with the thunder thou didst make thy dart and Vrtra meet in war,
Thy might, O Indra, fain to slay the Dragon, was set firm in heaven, lauding thine own imperial sway.

HYMN C. Indra.

18 He, much invoked, hath slain Dasyus and Simyus, after his wont, and laid them low with arrows.
The mighty Thunderer with his fair-complexioned friends won the land, the sunlight, and the waters.

HYMN CI. Indra.

1. SING, with oblation, praise to him who maketh glad, who with Rjisvan drove the dusky brood away.
Fain for help, him the strong whose right hand wields the bolt, him girt by Maruts we invoke to be our Friend.

HYMN CII. Indra.

2 The Seven Rivers bear his glory far and wide, and heaven and sky and earth display his comely form.
The Sun and Moon in change alternate run their course, that we, O Indra, may behold and may have faith.
7 Thy glory, Maghavan, exceeds a hundred yea, more than a hundred, than a thousand mid the folk,
The great bowl hath inspirited thee boundlessly: so mayst thou slay the Vrtras, breaker-down of forts!
10 Thou hast prevailed, and hast not kept the booty back, in trifling battles or in those of great account.
We make thee keen, the Mighty One, succour us: inspire us, Maghavan, when we defy the foe.

HYMN CIII. Indra.

3 Armed with his bolt and trusting in his prowess he wandered shattering the forts of Dasas.
Cast thy dart, knowing, Thunderer, at the Dasyu; increase the Arya’s might and glory, Indra.
4 For him who thus hath taught these human races, Maghavan, bearing a fame-worthy title,
Thunderer, drawing nigh to slay the Dasyus, hath given himself the name of Son for glory.

HYMN CIX. Indra-Agni.

8 Give, ye who shatter forts, whose hands wield thunder: Indra and Agni, save us in our battles.
This prayer of ours may Varuna grant, and Mitra, and Aditi and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.

HYMN CXXX. Indra.

8 Indra in battles help his Aryan worshipper, he who hath hundred helps at hand in every fray, in frays that win the light of heaven.
Plaguing the lawless he gave up to Manu’s seed the dusky skin; Blazing, ’twere, he burns each covetous man away, he burns, the tyrannous away.

HYMN CLXXIV. Indra.

2 Indra, thou humbledst tribes that spake with insult by breaking down seven
autumn forts, their refuge.
Thou stirredst, Blameless! billowy floods, and gavest his foe a prey to
youthful Purukutsa.
8 These thine old deeds new bards have sung, O Indra. Thou conqueredst,
boundest many tribes for ever.
Like castles thou hast crushed the godless races, and bowed the godless
scorner’s deadly weapon.

RIG VEDA – BOOK THE SECOND.

HYMN XI. Indra.

2 Floods great and many, compassed by the Dragon, thou badest swell and settest free, O Hero.
Strengthened by songs of praise thou rentest piecemeal the Dasa, him who deemed himself immortal.
4 We who add strength to thine own splendid vigour, laying within thine arms the splendid thunder –
With us mayst thou, O Indra, waxen splendid, with Surya overcome the Dasa races.
9 Indra hath hurled down the magician Vrtra who lay beleaguering the mighty river.
Then both the heaven and earth trembled in terror at the strong Hero’s thunder when he bellowed.

HYMN XII. Indra.

4 By whom this universe was made to tremble, who chased away the humbled brood of demons,
Who, like a gambler gathering his winnings seized the foe’s riches, He, O men, is Indra.

HYMN XIII. Indra.

5 Thou hast created earth to look upon the sky: thou, slaying Ahi, settest free the river’s paths.
Thee, such, a God, the Gods have quickened with their lauds, even as a steed with waters: meet for praise art thou.
10 All banks of rivers yielded to his manly might; to him they gave, to him, the Strong, gave up their wealth.
The six directions hast thou fixed, a five-fold view: thy victories reached afar. Worthy of lauds art thou.

HYMN XIV. Indra.

6 Ye ministers, to him who as with thunder demolished Sambara’s hundred ancient castles;
Who cast down Varcin’s sons, a hundred thousand, – to him, to Indra, offer ye the Soma.
7 Ye ministers, to him who slew a hundred thousand, and cast them down upon
earth’s bosom;
Who quelled the valiant men of Atithigva, Kutsa, and Ayu, – bring to him the Soma.

HYMN XX. Indra.

7 Indra the Vrtra-slayer, Fort-destroyer, scattered the Dasa hosts who dwelt in darkness. {Prof. Uthaya Naidu translates this as « who sprang from a black womb. »}
For men hath he created earth and waters, and ever helped the prayer of him who worships.
8 To him in might the Gods have ever yielded, to Indra in the tumult of the battle. {the Gods of the Harappans yielded to Indra}
When in his arms they laid the bolt, he slaughtered the Dasyus and cast down their forts of iron.

RIG VEDA – BOOK THE THIRD

HYMN XII. Indra-Agni.

6 Indra and Agni, ye cast down the ninety forts which Dasas held,
Together, with one mighty deed.

HYMN XXX. Indra.

16 A cry is beard from enemies most near us: against them send thy fiercest-flaming weapon.
Rend them from under, crush them and subdue them. Slay, Maghavan, and make the fiends our booty.
17 Root up the race of Raksasas, O Indra rend it in front and crush it in the middle.
How long hast thou behaved as one who wavers? Cast thy hot dart at him who hates devotion:

HYMN XXXI. Indra.

21 His kine their Lord hath shown, e’en Vrtra’s slayer, through the black
hosts he passed with red attendants.
Teaching us pleasant things by holy Order, to, us hath he thrown open all
his portals.

RIG VEDA – BOOK THE FOURTH

HYMN XVI. Indra.

13 Thou to the son of Vidathin, Rjisvan, gavest up mighty Mrgaya and Pipru.
Thou smotest down the swarthy fifty thousand, and rentest forts as age consumes a garment.

HYMN XXX. Indra.

13 Valiantly didst thou seize and take the store which Susna had amassed,
When thou didst crush his fortresses.
14 Thou, Indra, also smotest down Kulitara’s son Sambara,
The Dasa, from the lofty hill.
15 Of Dasa Varcin’s thou didst slay the hundred thousand and the five,
Crushed like the fellies, of a car. {car, i.e. chariot}
20 For Divodasa, him who brought oblation, Indra overthrew
A hundred fortresses of stone. {Stuart Piggot says this could also refer to mudbrick}
21 The thirty thousand Dasas he with magic power and weapons sent
To slumber, for Dabhiti’s sake.

HYMN V. Agni.

4 May he with sharpened teeth, the Bounteous Giver, Agni, consume with flame
most fiercely glowing.
Those who regard not Varuna’s commandments and the dear stedfast laws of
sapient Mitra.
5 Like youthful women without brothers, straying, like dames who hate their lords, of evil conduct,
They who are full of sin, untrue, unfaithful, they have engendered this
abysmal station.

HYMN XXXII. Indra.

10 We will declare thy hero deeds, what Disa forts thou brakest down,
Attacking them in rapturous joy.

RIG VEDA – BOOK THE FIFTH

HYMN XXIX. Agni.

2 What time the Maruts sang their song to Indra, joyous when he had drunk of Soma juices,
He grasped his thunderbolt to slay the Dragon, and loosed, that they might flow, the youthful Waters.
6 When Maghavan with the thunderbolt demolished his nine-and-ninety castles all together,
The Maruts, where they met, glorified Indra: ye with the Trstup hymn obstructed heaven.
10 One car-wheel of the Sun thou rolledst forward, and one thou settest free to move for Kutsa.
Thou slewest noseless Dasyus with thy weapon, and in their home o’erthrewest hostile speakers.

HYMN XXX. Indra.

5 When thou wast born supremest at a distance, bearing a name renowned in far-off regions,
Since then e’en Gods have been afraid of Indra: he conquered all the floods which served the Dasa.
6 These blissful Maruts sing their psalm to praise thee, and pour to thee libation of the Soma.
Indra with wondrous powers subdued the Dragon, the guileful lurker who beset the waters.
7 Thou, Maghavan, from the first didst scatter foemen, speeding, while joying in the milk, the Giver.
There, seeking man’s prosperity, thou torest away the head of Namuci the Dasa.
8 Pounding the head of Namuci the Dasa, me, too thou madest thine associate, Indra!
Yea, and the rolling stone that is in heaven both worlds, as on a car, brought to the Maruts.
9 Women for weapons hath the Dasa taken, What injury can his feeble armies To me?
Well he distinguished his two different voices, and Indra then advanced to fight the Dasyu. {Indra heard the prayers of the Aryans, rejecting those of the Harappans}

RIG VEDA – BOOK THE SIXTH

HYMN XXVII. Indra.

5 In aid of Abhyavartin Cayamana, Indra destroyed the seed of Varasikha.
At Hariyupiya he smote the vanguard of the Vrcivans, and the rear fled frighted. {« At Hariyupiyah he smote the vanguard of the Vrcivans … This Hariyupiyah is the Harappa excavated in the 1920s.}

6 Three thousand, mailed, in quest of fame, together, on the Yavyavati, O much-sought Indra,
Vrcivan’s sons, falling before the arrow, like bursting vessels went to their destruction.

7 He, whose two red Steers, seeking goodly pasture, plying their tongues move on ‘twixt earth and heaven,
Gave Turvasa to Srnjaya, and, to aid him, gave the Vrcivans up to Daivavata.

8 Two wagon-teams, with damsels, twenty oxen, O Agni, Abhydvartin Cayamdna,
The liberal Sovran, giveth me. This guerdon of Prthu’s seed is hard to win from others.

RIG VEDA – BOOK THE SEVENTH

HYMN I. Agni.

1. THE men from fire-sticks, with their hands’ swift movement, have, in deep thought, engendered glorious Agni, {lighting the sacred fire; this implies a field situation, since temples probably had permanent fires}
Far-seen, with pointed flame, Lord of the homestead.
10 Let these men, heroes in the fight with foemen, prevail against all godless arts of magic, – {i.e. the rites of the Harappans}
These who approve the noble song I sing thee.

HYMN XVIII. Indra.

13 Indra at once with conquering might demolished all their strong places and their seven castles.
The goods of Anu’s son he gave to Trtsu. May we in sacrifice conquer scorned Puru.
14 The Anavas and Druhyus, seeking booty, have slept, the sixty hundred, yea, six thousand,
And six-and-sixty heroes. For the pious were all these mighty exploits done by Indra.
15 These Trtsus under Indra’s careful guidance came speeding like loosed waters rushing downward.
The foemen, measuring exceeding closely, abandoned to Sudas all their provisions.
16 The hero’s side who drank the bressed oblation, Indra’s denier far o’er earth he scattered.
Indra brought down the fierce destroyer’s fury. He gave them various roads, the path’s Controller.
17 E’en with the weak he wrought this matchless exploit: e’en with a goat he did to death a lion.
He pared the pillar’s angles with a needle. Thus to Sudas Indra gave all provisions.
18 To thee have all thine enemies submitted: e’en the fierce Bheda hast thou made thy subject.
Cast down thy sharpened thunderbolt, O Indra, on him who harms the men who sing thy praises.
19 Yamuna and the Trtsus aided Indra. There he stripped Bheda bare of all his treasures.
The Ajas and the Sigrus and the Yaksus brought in to him as tribute heads of
horses.
20 Not to be scroned, but like Dawns past and recent, O Indra, are thy favours and thy riches,
Devaka, Manyamana’s son, thou slewest, and smotest Sambara from the lofty mountain.

HYMN XXI. Indra.

3 Indra, thou settest free the many waters that were encompassed, Hero, by the Dragon.
Down rolled, as if on chariots borne, the rivers: through fear of thee all things created tremble.
5 No evil spirits have impelled us, Indra, nor fiends, O Mightiest God, with their devices.
Let our true God subdue the hostile rabble: let not the lewd approach our holy worship. {« the lewd » probably refers to the phallic god Shiva of the Harappans (Dasyu).  Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva: the Erotic Ascetic, OUP, London 1973, p. 9; also see Rig Veda 10.xcix.3}

HYMN XCIX. Visnu.

4 Ye have made spacious room for sacrificing by generating Surya, Dawn, and Agni.
O Heroes, ye have conquered in your battles even the bull-jawed Dasa’s wiles and magic.
5 Ye have destroyed, thou, Indra, and thou Visnu, Sambara’s nine-and-ninety fenced castles.
Ye Twain smote down a hundred times a thousand resistless heroes of the royal Varcin.

HYMN C. Visnu.

4 Over this earth with mighty step strode Visnu, ready to give it for a home to Manu.
In him the humble people trust for safety: he, nobly born, hath made them spacious dwellings.
5 To-day I laud this name, O Sipivista, I, skilled in rules, the name of thee the Noble.
Yea, I the poor and weak praise thee the Mighty who dwellest in the realm beyond this region.
6 What was there to be blamed in thee, O Visnu, when thou declaredst, I am Sipivista?
Hide not this form from us, nor keep it secret, since thou didst wear another shape in battle.
7 O Visnu, unto thee my lips cry Vasat! Let this mine offering, Sipivista, please thee.
May these my songs of eulogy exalt thee. Preserve us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.

HYMN CIII. Frogs.

1. THEY who lay quiet for a year, the Brahmans who fulfil their vows,
The Frogs have lifted up their voice, the voice Parjanya hath inspired.
2 What time on these, as on a dry skin lying in the pool’s bed, the floods of heaven descended,
The music of the Frogs comes forth in concert like the cows lowing with their calves beside them.
3 When at the coming of the Rains the water has poured upon them as they yearned and thirsted,
One seeks another as he talks and greets him with cries of pleasure as a son his father.
4 Each of these twain receives the other kindly, while they are revelling in the flow of waters,
When the Frog moistened by the rain springs forward, and Green and Spotty both combine their voices.
5 When one of these repeats the other’s language, as he who learns the lesson of the teacher,
Your every limb seems to be growing larger as ye converse with eloquence on the waters.
6 One is Cow-bellow and Goat-bleat the other, one Frog is Green and one of them is Spotty.
They bear one common name, and yet they vary, and, talking, modulate the voice diversely.
7 As Brahmans, sitting round the brimful vessel, talk at the Soma-rite of Atiratra,
So, Frogs, ye gather round the pool to honour this day of all the year, the first of Rain-time.
8 These Brahmans with the Soma juice, performing their year-long rite, have lifted up their voices;
And these Adhvaryus, sweating with their kettles, come forth and show themselves, and none are hidden.
9 They keep the twelve month’s God-appointed order, and never do the men neglect the season.
Soon as the Rain-time in the year returneth, these who were heated kettles gain their freedom.
10 Cow-bellow and Goat-bleat have granted riches, and Green and Spotty have vouchsafed us treasure.
The Frogs who give us cows in hundreds lengthen our lives in this most fertilizing season.

HYMN CIV. Indra-Soma.

1. INDRA and Soma, burn, destroy the demon foe, send downward, O ye Bulls, those who add gloom to gloom.
Annihilate the fools, slay them and burn them up: chase them away from us, pierce the voracious ones.
2 Indra and Soma, let sin round the wicked boil like as a caldron set amid the flames of fire.
Against the foe of prayer, devourer of raw flesh, the vile fiend fierce of eye, keep ye perpetual hate. {perhaps an accusation of cannibalism}
3 Indra and Soma, plunge the wicked in the depth, yea, cast them into darkness that hath no support,
So that not one of them may ever thence return: so may your wrathful might prevail and conquer them.
4 Indra and Soma, hurl your deadly crushing bolt down on the wicked fiend from heaven and from the earth.
Yea, forge out of the mountains your celestial dart wherewith ye burn to death the waxing demon race. {implies a missile of some sort, perhaps carrying fire}
24 Slay the male demon, Indra! slay the female, joying and triumphing in arts of magic. {accuses the Harappans of practising magic}
Let the fools’ gods with bent necks fall and perish, and see no more the Sun when he arises.
25 Look each one hither, look around Indra and Soma, watch ye well.
Cast forth your weapon at the fiends; against the sorcerers hurt your bolt. {brands the Harappans sorcerers}

RIG VEDA – BOOK THE EIGHTH

HYMN XIX. Agni.

36 A gift of fifty female slaves hath Trasadasyu given me, Purukutsa’s son,
Most liberal, kind, lord of the brave. {probably wives of the defeated Harappans}
37 And Syava too for me led forth a strong steed at Suvastu’s ford:
A herd of three times seventy kine, good lord of gifts, he gave to me.

HYMN XXIV. Indra.

19 Come, sing we praise to Indra, friends, the Hero who deserves the laud,
Him who with none to aid o’ercomes all tribes of men.
22 As Vyasva did, praise Indra, praise the Strong unfluctuating Guide,
Who gives the foe’s possessions to the worshipper.

HYMN XXXI. Various Deities.

17 None in his action equals him, none holds him far or keeps him off.
The man who, sacrificing, strives to win the heart of Deities will conquer those who worship not.

HYMN XL. Indra-Agni.

6 Tear thou asunder, as of old, like tangles of a creeping plant,
Demolish thou the Dasa’s might. May we with Indra’s help divide the treasure he hath gathered up.

HYMN LXII. Asvins.

17 He looked upon the Asvins, as an axearmed man upon a tree:
Let your protecting help be near.
18 By the black band encompassed round, break it down, bold one, like a
fort. {implies that the Harappans were black}

HYMN LXXIV. Asvins.

4 List, Heroes, to the singer’s call, the call of Krsna lauding you,
To drink the savoury Soma juice.

HYMN LXXXV. Indra.

9 A sharpened weapon is the host of Maruts. Who, Indra, dares withstand thy bolt of thunder?
Weaponless are the Asuras, the godless: scatter them with thy wheel, Impetuous Hero.
15 And then the Drop in Amsumati’s bosom, splendid with light, assumed its proper body;
And Indra, with Brhaspati to aid him, conquered the godless tribes that came against him.
18 Then wast thou, Chieftain of all living mortals, the very mighty slayer of the Vrtras.
Then didst thou set the obstructed rivers flowing, and win the floods that were enthralled by Dasas.

BOOK IX {Book Nine}

HYMN XLI. Soma Pavamana.

1. ACTIVE and bright have they come forth, impetuous in speed like bulls,
Driving the black skin far away.
2 Quelling the riteless Dasyu, may we think upon the bridge of bliss,
Leaving the bridge of woe behind.

HYMN LXXIII. Soma Pavamana.

5 O’er Sire and Mother they have roared in unison bright with the verse of praise, burning up riteless men,
Blowing away with supernatural might from earth and from the heavens the swarthy skin which Indra hates.

RIG VEDA – BOOK THE TENTH

{this later book contains some philosophical hymns of universal interest, passing beyond the tribal ethic of the rest of the Rig Veda, and leading towards the Upanishads, Jainism & Buddhism}

HYMN XXXIV. Dice, Etc. {Gambling}

1. SPRUNG from tall trees on windy heights, these rollers transport me as they turn upon the table.
Dearer to me the die that never slumbers than the deep draught of Mujavan’s own Soma.
2 She never vexed me nor was angry with me, but to my friends and me was ever gracious.
For the die’s sake, whose single point is final, mine own devoted wife I alienated.
3 My wife holds me aloof, her mother hates me: the wretched man finds none
to give him comfort.
As of a costly horse grown old and feeble, I find not any profit of the gamester.
4 Others caress the wife of him whose riches the die hath coveted, that
rapid courser:
Of him speak father, mother, brothers saying, We know him not: bind him and take him with you.
5 When I resolve to play with these no longer, my friends depart from me and
leave me lonely.
When the brown dice, thrown on the board, have rattled, like a fond girl I seek the place of meeting.
6 The gamester seeks the gambling-house, and wonders, his body all afire, Shall I be lucky?
Still do the dice extend his eager longing, staking his gains against his adversary.
7 Dice, verily, are armed with goads and driving-hooks, deceiving and tormenting, causing grievous woe.
They give frail gifts and then destroy the man who wins, thickly anointed with the player’s fairest good.
9 Downward they roll, and then spring quickly upward, and, handless, force the man with hands to serve them.
Cast on the board, like lumps of magic charcoal, though cold themselves they burn the heart to ashes.
10 The gambler’s wife is left forlorn and wretched: the mother mourns the son who wanders homeless.
In constant fear, in debt, and seeking riches, he goes by night unto the home of others.
11 Sad is the gambler when he sees a matron, another’s wife, and his well-ordered dwelling.
He yokes the brown steeds in the early morning, and when the fire is cold sinks down an outcast.
13 Play not with dice: no, cultivate thy corn-land. Enjoy the gain, and deem that wealth sufficient.
There are thy cattle, there thy wife, O gambler. So this good Savitar himself hath told me.
14 Make me your friend: show us some little mercy. Assail us not with your terrific fierceness.
Appeased be your malignity and anger, and let the brown dice snare some other captive.

HYMN XC. Purusa. {The 4 castes are actually mentioned here}

The Brahman was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rajanya made.
His thighs became the Vaisya, from his feet the Sudra was produced.

{This shows that the caste system was brought by the conquerors. The defeated became sudras. Rajanya = Ksatriya, the military caste; Vaisya = the farmer and trader}

HYMN XCIX. Indra.

3 On most auspicious path he goes to battle he toiled to win heaven’s light, full fain to gain it;
He seized the hundred-gated castle’s treasure by craft, unchecked, and slew the lustful demons. {by craft .. burning arrows? « lustful » probably refers to the phallic god Shiva of the Harappans (Dasyu).  Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty, Siva: the Erotic Ascetic, OUP, London 1973, p. 9; also see Rig Veda 7.xxi.5}
6 Lord of the dwelling, he subdued the demon who roared aloud, six-eyed and triple-headed.
Trta, made stronger by the might he lent him, struck down the boar with shaft whose point was iron.
7 He raised himself on high and shot his arrow against the guileful and oppressive foeman.
Strong, glorious, manliest, for us he shattered the forts of Nabus when he slew the Dasyus.
8 He, like a cloud that rains upon the pasture, hath found for us the way to dwell in safety.
When the Hawk comes in body to the Soma, armed with his iron claws he slays the Dasyus.
9 He with his potent Friends gave up the mighty, gave Susnia up to Kutsa for affliction.
He led the lauded Kavi, he delivered Atka as prey to him and to his heroes.
10 He, with his Gods who love mankind, the Wondrous, giving like Varuna who works with magic,
Was known, yet young as guardian of the seasons; and he quelled Araru, four-footed demon.
11 Through lauds of him hath Ausija Rjisvan burst, with the Mighty’s aid, the stall of Pipru.
When the saint pressed the juice and shone as singer, he seized the forts and with his craft subdued them.
12 So, swiftly Asura, for exaltation, hath the great Vamraka come nigh to Indra.
He will, when supplicated, bring him blessing: he hath brought all, food, strength, a happy dwelling.

HYMN CV. Indra.

8 Grind off our sins: with song will we conquer the men who sing no hymns:
Not easily art thou pleased with prayerless sacrifice.
11 As hundreds, O Immortal God, have sung to thee, so hath Sumitra, yea, Durmitra praised thee here,
What time thou holpest Kutsa’s son, when Dasyus fell, yea, holpest Kutsa’s darling when the Dasyus died.

HYMN CXXIX. Creation. {this most-quoted hymn shows great reflection, the admission of ignorance; it therefore approaches the Upanishads}

1. THEN was not non-existent nor existent: there was no realm of air, no sky beyond it.
What covered in, and where? and what gave shelter? Was water there, unfathomed depth of water?
2 Death was not then, nor was there aught immortal: no sign was there, the day’s and night’s divider.
That One Thing, breathless, breathed by its own nature: apart from it was nothing whatsoever.
3 Darkness there was: at first concealed in darkness this All was indiscriminated chaos.
All that existed then was void and form less: by the great power of Warmth was born that Unit.
4 Thereafter rose Desire in the beginning, Desire, the primal seed and germ of Spirit.
Sages who searched with their heart’s thought discovered the existent’s kinship in the non-existent.
5 Transversely was their severing line extended: what was above it then, and what below it?
There were begetters, there were mighty forces, free action here and energy up yonder
6 Who verily knows and who can here declare it, whence it was born and whence comes this creation?
The Gods are later than this world’s production. Who knows then whence it first came into being?
7 He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not form it,
Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps he knows not.

HYMN CXXXVIII. Indra.

3 In the mid-way of heaven the Sun unyoked his car: the Arya found a match to meet his Dasa foe.
Associate with Rjisvan Indra overthrew the solid forts of Pipru, conjuring Asura.
4 He boldly cast down forts which none had e’er assailed: unwearied he destroyed the godless treasure-stores.
Like Sun and Moon he took the stronghold’s wealth away, and, praised in song, demolished foes with flashing dart.

{end of quotes from the Rig Veda}