TREATY BETWEEN POLAND, RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE, SIGNED AT RIGA, MARCH 18TH, 1921 is still valid !

TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN PO
LAND, RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE,
SIGNED AT RIGA, MARCH 18TH, 1921
PREAMBLE.
POLAND – of the one hand – and
RUSSIA and the UKRAINE
– of the other – being
desirous of putting an end to the war and of
concluding a final, lasting and honourable
peace based on a mutual understanding and in a
ccordance with the peace preliminaries
signed at Riga on October 12, 1920, have deci
ded to enter into negotiations and have
appointed for this purpose as plenipotentiaries:
The Government of THE POLISH REPUBLIC:
MM. Jean DABSKI.
Stanislas KAUZIK.
Edouard LECHOWICZ.
Henri STRASBURGER and
Leon WASILEWSKI.
The Government of THE FEDERAL SOCIALIS
T REPUBLIC OF THE RUSSIAN SOVIETS,
on its own behalf and with the author
isation of the Government
of the White-Ruthenian
Socialist Republic of Soviets an
d of the Government of the Uk
rainian Socialist Republic of
Soviets:
MM. Adolphe JOFFÉ
Jacob GANETSKI
Emmanuel KVIRING
Leonide OBOLENSKI and
Georges KOTSHOUBINSKI,
The above-mentioned plenipotentiaries met
at Riga, and having exchanged their full
powers which were recognised as sufficient
and found to be in good and due form, agreed
to the following provisions:
Article 1.
The two Contracting Parties decla
re that a state of war has
ceased to exist between them.
Article 2.
The two Contracting Parties, in accordance with
the principle of nati
onal self-determination
recognise the independence of the Ukraine
and of White-Ruthen
ia and agree and decide
that the eastern frontier of Po
land, that is to say, the fr
ontier between Poland on the one
hand, and Russia, White-Ruthenia and the Ukra
ine on the other, shall be as follows:
The frontier shall follow the course of the
Dzwina Zapadnaia (Dvina),
from the frontier
between Russia and Latvia, to the point at which
the frontier of the
former Government of
Wilno meets the frontier
of the former Government of Vit
ebsk; thence it shall follow the
frontier between the former Governments of W
ilno and Vitebsk as far as the town of
Orzechowno (Oriekhovno), leaving the road
and the town of Orzechowno to Poland;

It shall then cross the railway
line near the town of Orzechow
no, and turning towards the
South West, shall run along the railway line, l
eaving the station of Sahacie (Zagatié) to
Poland, the village of Zahacie to Russia and the village of Stelmachowo (Stelmakhovo) to
Poland;
thence it shall follow the eastern frontier of th
e former Government of Wilno as far as the
meeting point of the district
s of Dzisna, Lepel and Borysow;
thence it shall follow the front
ier of the former Government
of Wilno at an approximate
distance of one kilometre, as far as the point
at which this frontier turns westwards near to
Sosnowiec;
thence the frontier shall continue in a straight
line towards the source
of the river Czernica
to the east of Hornow (Gornov),
and thereafter it shall follow the Czernica river as far as
the village of Wielka-Czernica (B
olchaia Tchernitsa) which it shall leave to White Ruthenia;
thence, it shall continue in a southwesterly di
rection, across the Lake of Miadzid, to the
village of Zarzeczyck (Zariétchitsk) which sha
ll be left to White Ruth
enia; together with the
village of Chmielewszczyzna (Khmielev Chtchi
zna); on the other hand, the villages of
Starosiele (Starosielié) and of Turowszczyzna
(Tourovchtchizna) shall belong to Poland;
thence, the frontier shall run in
a southwesterly direction to t
he confluence of the river Wilja
(Vilia) with an unnamed stream on
the west of the village
of Drohomicz (Drogomitch),
leaving to White Ruthenia the followi
ng villages: Uhly (Ougli), Wolbarowicze
(Volbarovitchi), Borowe (Borovié), Szumowka
(Chounovka), Beztrock (Biestrotsk), Daleka
(Dalekaia), Klaczkowek (Klatchkovsk), Zarantow
(Ziarantov), Maciej
owce (Matviéiévtsi),
and the following to Poland: Komajsk, Raszkow
ka (Raschkova), Osowa (Osova), Kusk,
Wardomicze (Vardomitchi), Sol
one (Solonofa) Milcz (Miltcha);
thence, the line shall follow t
he river of Wilja to the road
on the south of the town of
Dolhinowo (Dolginov);
thence, it shall pass to the s
outh of the village of Baturyn
(Botourino), leaving to White
Ruthenia all that road and
the villages of Rahozin (Ragozin),
of Tokary (Tokari), of Polosy
and of Hluboczany (Gloubotchani), and to
Poland the following villages: Owsianiki,
Czarnorucze (Tchernoroutchié), Zurawa (J
ourava), Ruszczyce (Rouchitsé), Zaciemien
(Zatiémié), Borki, Caerwiaki
and Baturyn (Botourino);
thence, it shall run to the town of Rado
szkowisge (Radochkovitchi), leaving to White
Ruthenia the villages of Papysze (Papich
i), Sieliszcze, Podworany (Podvorani),
Trusowicze-North (Trusovitchi), Do
szki, Cyganowo, Dworzyszcze (Dworiszczi) and
Czyrewicze (Tchirévitchi) and to Poland the vi
llages of Lukawiec (Lounkoviets), Mordasy,
Rubce (Roubtsi), Lawcowicze (Lavtovitc
hi)-North and Lawcowicze-South, Budzki
(Boutski), Klimonty, Wielkie
Bakszty (Bolchiié-Bakchté and the town of Radoszkowicze
(Radochkovitchi);
thence it shall follow the river of Wiazowka (V
iazovka) to the village of Lipienie (Lipieni),
leaving the latter village to Poland, then running
in a southwesterly direction, crossing the
railway and leaving the stati
on of Radoszkowicze (Radockhov
itchi) to White Ruthenia;

thence it shall run to the East of the town of
Rakow (Rakov), leaving to White Ruthenia the
villages of Wiekszyce (Viekchitchi), Dolzenie
(Dolgeni), Mietkowa
(Mietkowa), Wielka
Borozdynka (Bolchaia Borozdinka) and Ko
zielszczyzna (Kogelchtchizna) and to Poland
the villages of Szypowaly (Chipovali), Mace
wicze (Matsévitchi), Stari Rakow (Starii
Rakov), Kuczkuny and the town of Rakow;
thence the frontier shall continue as far as th
e town of Woma (Volma), leaving to White
Ruthenia the villages of: Wielkie-Siolo (Vie
likojé Siélo), Malawka (Malavka), Lukasze
(Loukachi) and Szczepki, and to Poland
the villages of: Duszkowo (Douchkova),
Chimorydy (Himarydy), Jankowce (J
ankovtsi) and the town of Wolma;
thence it shall follow the road fr
om the town of Wolma as far
as the town of Rubiezewicze
(Roubiegevitchi), leaving that
road and the town to Poland;
thence it shall continue south as far as the u
nnamed inn situated at t
he point at which the
Baranowicze-Minsk railway crosses the Nowy
Swierzen-Minsk road (see map, scale one
English inch to 10 versts, above the letter M
at the beginning of the word Miezinowka, and
map scale one English inch to 25 versts near
Kolosowo) leaving the inn to Poland; the
villages of Papki, Zywica (Givitsa), Poloni
ewicze (Polonievitchi)
, Osinowka (Ossinovka)
shall go to White Ruthenia and the villages of Li
chacze (Likhatchi) and of Rozanka shall go
to Poland;
thence the frontier shall pass across the cent
re of the Nieswiez (Niesvige) Cimkowicze
(Timkovitchi) road to the west of Kukowi
cze (Koukovitchi) leaving the villages of
Swerynowo (Swérinowo), Kutiec, Lunina (Louni
na), Jazwina (lasvina)-North, Bieliki;
Jazwin (lazvine), Rymasze (Rymachi) and Kuko
wicze (all three) to White Ruthenia; the
villages of Kul, Buczne (Boutchnoié), Dwianopol Zurawy, Posieki, Juszewicze
(louchévitchi), Lisuny-North and Lisuny-S
outh, Sutanowszczyzna (Soultanovchtchina) and
Pleszewicze (Pléchévitchi) to Poland;
thence it shall pass halfway between Kleck (K
letsk) and Cimkowicze (between the villages
of Puzowo and Prochody), leaving to White
Ruthenia the villages of Rajowka (Raiouvka),
Sawicze (Sawitchi), Zarakowce (Zarakovtsi)
and Puzowo, and to Poland the villages of
Marusin, East Smolicze (Smolitchi)
, Lecieszyn (Letiéchine) and Prochody;
thence it shall continue as far as the Warsaw
Moscow road, crossing it
to the west of the
village of West Filipowicze (Filipovitchi) and
leaving the village of Ciechova (Tiekhowa) to
White Ruthenia and the village of Jodczyce (lodtchitsi) to Poland;
thence it shall run south of
the Morocz river (Morotch near
Choropol (Khoropol), leaving
the villages of Stare Mokrany (Starye Mokr
any), Zadworse (Zadvorié), Mokrany and
Choropol to White Ruthenia, and the vill
ages of Ciecierowiec, Ostaszki, Lozowicze
(Lozovitchi) and Nowe Mokrany (Novye Mokrany) to Poland;
thence it shall follow the Morocz river as far as
its confluence with the river Slucz (Sloutch)
of Minsk;
thence it shall follow the river Slucz as far
as its confluence with the Prypec (Pripet);

thence it shall continue towards the village of
Berezce (Bierestsé) leaving the villages of
Lubowicze (Loubovitchi), Chilczyce (Khilchits
i) and Berezce to White Ruthenia, and the
villages of North-Lutki and
South-Lutki to Poland;
thence it shall follow the road in
the direction of the village of Buckza (Bouktcha), leaving
the road and the village of Buckza to White Ru
thenia and the village
of Korma (Korma) to
Poland;
thence it shall continue as far as the Sarny-
Olewsk railway, which it shall cross between
the stations of Ostki and Snowidowicze (Snovi
dovitchi), leaving to the Ukraine the villages
of Wojtkowicze (Voitkovitchi), Sobiczyn (S
obitchine), Michalowka (Mikhailovka) and Budki
Snowidowieckie (Boudki-Snovidovitskié) and to Poland the villages of Radziwilowicze
(Radzivilovitchi), Raczkow (Ratchov), Bialowi
ska (Bielovichskaia), Bialowiez (Biélovija)
and Snowidowicze (Snovidovitchi);
thence the frontier shall continue towards the
village of Myszakowka (Michakovka), leaving
to the Ukraine the villages of Majdan Ho
lyszewski (Maidan Golichevski), Zaderewie
(Zadiérevié), Marjampol, Zo
lny, Klonowa (Klénovaia) a
nd Rudnia Klenowska (Rudnia
Klénovskaia), and to Poland the villages of
Derc (Diert), Okopy, Netreba (Niétreva),
Woniacze, Perelysianka (Perelysianka), Nowa
Huta (Novaia Gouta) and Myszakowka
(Michakovka);
thence it shall continue as far as the mouth
of the river Korczyk (Kortchik), leaving the
village of Mlynek (Mlinok) to the Ukraine;
thence it shall run up the river Korczyk, leaving
the town of Korzec (Koriets-Novoié-Miesto)
to Poland:
thence it shall continue as far as the village of
Milatyn (Milatin) leaving to the Ukraine the
villages of Poddubce (Poddoubtsi), Kilikijow (Kil
ikijow), Dolski, Parajowka (Parajevka),
Ulaszanowka (Oulasianovka) and Marjanowka (Marianovka), and the villages of
Bohdanowka (Bogdanowka), Czernica (Tchernits
a), Krylow (Krilow), Majkow (Maikovo),
Dolha (Dolga), Friederland, Porseba, Kuraska (K
urachsku Poroub) and Milatyn to Poland;
thence it shall follow the road leading from the
village of Milatyn to the town of Ostrop,
leaving the villages of Moszczanowka (Mochtc
hanovka), Krzywin (Krivine) and Solowie to
the Ukraine, and the villages of Moszczanica (Mochanitsa), Bodowka (Bodovka),
Wilbowno, the town of Os
trog and the road to Poland;
thence it shall run up the river Wilja (Wilia) as
far as the village of Chodaki, which remains
to Poland;
thence it shall continue as far as the town
of Bialozorka (Bielozorka), leaving to the
Ukraine the villages of Wielka Borowica (Vié
likaia Borovitsa), Stepanowka (Stiépanovka),
North-Bajmaki and South-Bajmaki, Liski, Siwki,
Woloski, the town of Jampol, the villages
of Didkowce (Diédkovtsi), Wiasczowiec (Via
zoviets) and Krzywczyki (Krivtchiki), and to
Poland the villages of Bolozowka (Bol
ogevka), Sadki, Obory, Szkrogotowka
(Chkrobotovka), Pankowce (Pankovtsi),
Grzybowa (Gribova), Lysohorka (Lysogorka),
Molodzkow (Molodkov) and the town
of Bialozorka (Bielozorka);

thence it shall continue as far as the rive
r Zbrucz, leaving the
road and the village of
Szczesnowka (Chtchasnovka) to Poland;
thence it shall follow the river Zbrucz, as
far as its confluence with the Dniester.
The frontiers described above are marked in
red in a map, Russian edition, scale one
English inch to 10 versts, which is annexed to
the present Treaty. In
case of difference
between the text and the map,
the text shall prevail.
The alteration by artificial means of the wate
r-level of the frontier-rivers and lakes resulting
in a modification of their courses in such parts
of them as constitute the frontier line, and
likewise the alteration of the average water-level
in the territory of the other Party, is
forbidden. The two Contracting Parties sha
ll enjoy the right of
free navigation and free
rafting on those parts of the ri
vers which form the frontier.
A Mixed Delimitation Commission, to be set up
in accordance with Article 1 of the Peace
preliminaries of October 12, 1920, and in c
onformity with the supplementary Protocol
concerning the execution of
the above-mentioned Article,
signed at Riga on February 24,
1921, shall be entrusted with the
duty of determining the details
of the above frontier line
and of tracing it on the spot, as we
ll as of fixing the frontier marks.
In marking out the frontiers
, the Mixed Delimitation Commi
ssion shall conform to the
following principles:
(a) When the frontier follows a river, the line
drawn along the middle
of the main channel
shall be understood in the case
of navigable rivers; and in the case of non-navigable rivers
the line drawn along the middl
e of their main channel.
(b) When the frontier has been defined by lines
which are not strictly determined and when
precise information is lacking, attention sha
ll be paid, during the ac
tual marking of the
frontier, to the economic requi
rements of the locality and to
ethnographical considerations.
Should these latter be the subject of a disput
e, they will be decided in accordance with the
decisions of the Delimitation Sub-Commi
ttees, after an enquiry has been carried out
among the population. Land held by
private owners shall be regarded as forming a single
economic unit with the l
and of the nearest village.
(c) When the frontier is defined by
the statement: „leaving the v
illage … to …“ the village in
question shall remain on that side
of the frontier with
all the land which belonged to it up to
the date of the occupation of t
he territory in question by Pola
nd, in order that the partition
of estates may be avoided;
(d) When the frontier is formed by
a road, the road itself sha
ll remain the property of the
country in which are the two villages
directly connected by that road;
(e) When the frontier is defined by the statemen
t: „leaving the railway st
ation”, the frontier
shall be marked out on the spot according to
topographical conditions, at a distance of
from 1 1/2 to 3 kilometres from the departure
signal (or if no signal exists, from the
departure switch points), due regard being paid
to the preservation of estates bordering on
the railway line as economic units.

Each of the Contracting Parties undertakes
to withdraw within a period not exceeding 14
days from the date of the signat
ure of the present Treaty, it
s troops and administrative
authorities from districts which have been recogni
sed as belonging to the other Party, in
accordance with the frontier line
described above. In districts si
tuated on the frontier line
itself in so far as the present Treaty does not
stipulate that they sha
ll not belong to one or
the other Party, the adm
inistrative and frontier authorities al
ready existing shall remain on
the spot until such time as the frontier s
hall have been actually marked out, and these
districts shall have been defin
itely allotted by the Mixed
Delimitation Commission, after
which the said authorities shall be recalled to
their own territory in accordance with the
principles laid down in paragraph 9 of the Ar
mistice Convention of October 13, 1920. The
question of the archives relating to Polish territory shall be settled in accordance with
Article 11 of the present Treaty.
Article 3.
Russia and the Ukraine abandon all rights and claims
to the territories si
tuated to the west
of the frontier laid down by Article 2 of
the present Treaty. Po
land, on the other hand,
abandons in favour of the Ukraine and of Wh
ite Ruthenia all rights and claims to the
territory situated to the east of
this frontier. The two Contra
cting Parties agree that, in so
far as the territory situated to t
he west of the frontier fixed in
Article 2 of the present Treaty,
includes districts which form the subject
of a dispute between Po
land and Lithuania, the
question of the attribution of t
hese districts to one of those two States is a matter which
exclusively concerns Poland and Lithuania.
Article 4.
Poland shall not, in view of the fact that a
part of the territories
of the Polish Republic
formerly belonged to the Russian Empire be hel
d to have incurred any debt or obligation
towards Russia, except as pr
ovided in the present Treaty.
Similarly, no debt or obligation shall be r
egarded as incurred by Poland towards White
Ruthenia or the Ukraine and vice versa except
as provided in the present Treaty, owing to
the fact that these countries form
erly belonged to the Russian Empire.
Article 5.
Each of the Contracting Parties mutually under
takes to respect in every way the political
sovereignty of the other Party, to abstain fr
om interference in its internal affairs, and
particularly to refrain from all agitation,
propaganda or interference of
any kind, and not to
encourage any such movement.
Each of the Contracting Parties undertakes not
to create or protect organisations which
are formed with the object of
encouraging armed conflict agai
nst the other Contracting
Party or of undermining its territor
ial integrity, or of subverting by
force its political or social
institutions, nor yet such organisations as clai
m to be the Government of the other Party or
of a part of the territories of
the other Party. The Contract
ing Parties therefore, undertake
to prevent such organisations, their official
representatives and other persons connected
therewith, from establishing t
hemselves on their territory, and to prohibit military recruiting
and the entry into their territory and transport
across it, of armed fo
rces, arms, munitions
and war material of any kind
destined for such organisations.
Article 6.
(1) All persons above the age of 18
who, at the date of
the ratification of the present Treaty
are within the territory of Po
land and on August 1st, 1914, were nationals of the Russian

Empire and are, or have the right to be,
included in the registers of the permanent
population of the ancient kingdom
of Poland, or have been includ
ed in the registers of an
urban or rural commune, or of one
of the class organisations in
the territories of the former
Russian Empire, which formed part of Poland, s
hall have the right of opting for Russian or
Ukrainian nationality. A
similar declaration by nationals of
the former Russian Empire of all
other categories who are within Polish territory at
the date of the ratifi
cation of the Present
Treaty shall not be necessary.
(2) Nationals of the former Russian Empire abov
e the age of 18, who at the date of the
ratification of the present Tr
eaty are within the territory of
Russia and of the Ukraine and
are, or have the right to be, included in t
he register of the perm
anent population of the
ancient Kingdom of Poland, or have been incl
uded in the registers
of an urban or rural
commune, or of one of the class organisation
s in the territories of the former Russian
Empire, which formed part of Poland, shall be
considered as Polish citizens, if they
express such a desire in accordance with the syst
em of opting laid down in this article.
Persons above the age of 18 who are within the
territory of Russia and
of the Ukraine shall
also be considered as Polish citizens if they
express such a desire, in accordance with the
system of opting laid down in this Article,
and if they provide
proofs that they are
descendants of those who t
ook part in the Polish struggle for independence between 1830
and 1865, or that they are de
scendants of persons who have for at least three generations
been continuously established in the territory
of the ancient Polish
Republic, or if they
show that they have by their actions, by
the habitual use of t
he Polish language and by
their method of educating their children, given
effective proof of thei
r attachment to Polish
nationality.
(3) The regulations concerning opting also appl
y to persons who conform to the conditions
laid down in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the present Ar
ticle, in so far as such persons are not
resident outside the frontiers of Poland, Russ
ia and the Ukraine, and are not nationals of
the State in which they reside.
(4) The choice made by the husband shall bi
nd also his wife and such children as are
under the age of 18, in so far as husband and
wife have not agreed to the contrary. If they
cannot agree, the wife shall have t
he right of free option, in this
case the choice of the wife
shall involve such of the children as she is
bringing up. In the case of orphans, the choice
shall be postponed until they hav
e reached the age of 18, and the
periods provided for in
this Article shall commence to run from that dat
e. In the case of ot
her persons who are not
persons in law, the choice s
hall be made by their guardian.
(5) The declarations of option shall be made to
the Consul or other o
fficial representative
of the State for which the person wishes to op
t, within the period of one year from the date
of ratification of the present Tr
eaty; in the case of persons
residing in the Caucasus and in
Russian Asia, this period is prolonged to fi
fteen months. These declarations shall be
submitted to the authorities of the St
ate in which such persons may be.
The two Contracting Parties undertake, within
one month from the date
of the signature of
the present Treaty, to
publish and communicate to each other
the provisions with regard to
the authorities who will be call
ed upon to receive the declarati
ons of option. The Parties
also undertake to communicate to each other,
through diplomatic chann
els, within a period
of three months, the lists of persons who
have made declarations of option and to state
which declarations are recognised as valid and which are not.

(6) Persons who have made their declaration
of option shall not,
in virtue of that
declaration acquire the nationality which t
hey have chosen. When the person making the
declaration conforms to the conditions laid do
wn in paragraphs 1, and 2 of this Article, the
Consul or other official representative of
the State in favour of which the option is
exercised, shall give his opinion on the matter
and shall forward to the Ministry (Peoples
Commissariat) of Foreign Affairs, a certificat
e relating thereto, toge
ther with the documents
of the person opting. Within the period
of one month from the date upon which these
certificates are communicated,
the Ministry (Peoples Commissari
at) of Foreign Affairs shall
either inform the above mentioned
representative that his decisi
on is contested, in which
case the question shall be settled by di
plomatic means, or shall confirm the
representative’s decision and sha
ll forward him a certificate establishing the loss of the
former nationality by the person opting,
accompanied by copies of all documents
belonging to the person opting,
except the document concerni
ng the right of residence.
If, on the expiration of one month the Ministry
(Peoples Commissariat) of Foreign Affairs
has communicated no observations to the repres
entative, it shall be
considered that the
latter’s decision has been accepted.
Should the person opting confor
m to all the conditions laid
down in paragraphs 1 and 2,
the State in favour of which his choice is m
ade shall not have the right to refuse to grant
him its nationality, and the State in which the
person opting resides shall not have the right
to refuse to release him
from his former nationality.
The decisions of the Consul and
of any other official represent
ative of the State in favour
of which the option is exercised, shall be su
bmitted within a period
of not more than two
months from the date upon which
the declaration of option is made; in the case of persons
residing in the Caucasus or in Russian Asia,
this period is extended for a further three
months. The declaration of option shall be free fr
om all stamp and passport duties, from all
other charges and from duties
in respect of publication.
(7) Persons whose declaration of option has
been considered valid may proceed freely to
the State in favour of which
they have opted. The Government
of the State in which these
persons reside may, however, compel them to
make use of the right of departure which is
granted to them; in this case their departure s
hall take place within a
period of six months
from the date upon which
the notice regarding this matter
is served. The persons opting
shall have the right to retain or to sell the
moveable and immoveable property, which they
lawfully possess; in case of departure t
hey may take such property with them in
accordance with the regulations laid down in
Annex 2 of the pres
ent Treaty. Property
which exceeds the quantity which may be export
ed, and which is left on the spot, may be
transported later when transport conditions have
improved. The export of property shall be
free from all customs duties and taxes.
(8) Until such time as their option has been
declared valid, the persons opting shall be
subject to all the laws in force in the Stat
e in which they are re
sident; from the date upon
which they make their declaration of opti
on they shall be considered as foreigners.
(9) If a person, whose declaration of opti
on has been recognised as valid, is the dependant
in any legal prosecution or enquiry, or is
undergoing punishment, such person shall be
sent under escort with all the
relevant documents, to the st
ate for which he has opted, if
that State requests his extradition.

(10) Persons whose declaration of opt
ion has been pronounced valid shall be fully
recognised as citizens of the State, of thei
r choice; persons opting shall enjoy to an equal
extent and without excepti
on, all rights and privileges granted to
citizens of that State, in
virtue either of the
present Treaty or of
subsequent Conventions, if
at the date of the
ratification of the present Treaty they were
already nationals of the
State for which they
opt.
Article 7.
(1) Russia and the Ukraine undertake that persons of Polish nationality in Russia, the
Ukraine and White Ruthenia, shal
l, in conformity with the pr
inciples of the equality of
peoples, enjoy full guarantees of free intellect
ual development, the use of their national
language and the exercise of their religion.
Poland undertakes to
recognise the same
rights in the case of persons of Russian,
Ukrainian and White Ru
thenian nationality in
Poland.
Persons of Polish nationality in Russia, the Uk
raine and White Ruthenia shall so far as is
in conformity with the domestic
legislation of these countries
have the right to make full
use of their own language, to organise and ma
intain their own system of education, to
develop their intellectual activities and to est
ablish associations and societies for this
purpose; persons of Russian, Ukrainian and
White Ruthenian nationa
lity in Poland shall
enjoy the same rights so far as is in confo
rmity with the domestic legislation of Poland.
(2) The two Contracting Parties mutually undertake
not to interfere directly or indirectly in
questions concerning the organisation and work
of the church and of the religious
associations within the terri
tory of the other Party.
(3) The Churches and religious associations
in Russia, the Ukraine, and White Ruthenia,
of which Polish nationals are members, shall,
so far as is in conformity with the domestic
legislation of these countries
have the right of independent se
lf-administration in domestic
matters.
The churches and religious associations above
mentioned shall so far as is in conformity
with domestic legislation, enjoy the right of
employing and acquiring the moveable and real
property necessary for the practice of thei
r religion and for the support of the clergy and
the upkeep of ecclesiastical institutions.
In accordance with the same principle they s
hall have the right of using the churches and
institutions which are necessary for the practi
ce of their religion.
Russian, Ukrainian and
White Ruthenian nationals shall enj
oy similar rights in Poland.
Article 8.
The two Contracting Parties mutually abando
n all claims to the repayment of war
expenses, that is to say all the expenses in
curred by the State during the war, and of the
indemnities for damages caused by the war, that
is to say, for damages caused to them or
to their nationals in the theatre of war as a re
sult of the war or of
military measures taken
during the Polish-Russian-Ukrainian War.
Article 9.
(1) The agreement concerning repatriation
concluded between Poland on the one hand,
and Russia and the Ukraine on the other, in
pursuance of Article 7 of the peace

preliminaries of October 12,
1920, signed at Riga on February
24, 1921, shall remain in
force.
(2) The settlement of accounts and the repayment
of the actual cost of maintenance of
prisoners of war shall be effected within a
period of three months. The method of
calculating and fixing the amount of these
expenses shall be determined by the Mixed
Repatriation Commission established in
virtue of the afor
ementioned agreement.
(3) The two Contracting Parties undertake to
respect and maintain in good order the
graves of prisoners of war who
have died in captivity, and of soldiers, officers and other
military personnel who fell on the
field of battle and were buried within their territory. The
Parties undertake to allow the erection of
monuments over these graves in the future,
subject to the approval of t
he local authorities, and likewise the exhumation and transport
of the bodies of the dead to their native country
at reduced rates, subj
ect to the provisions
of the national legislation and t
he exigencies of public health.
The above-mentioned provisions shall also apply
to tombs and graves of hostages, civilian
prisoners, interned civilians, ex
iles, fugitives and emigrants.
(4) Each of the two Contracting Parties
undertakes to supply the other with the death
certificates of the above-ment
ioned persons, together with comp
lete information as to the
number and the sites of the
graves of all persons bur
ied without being identified.
Article 10.
(1) Each of the Contracting Parties guarantees
to the subjects of
the other Party a full
amnesty for political crimes and offences
. All acts directed against the system of
government and the security of t
he State, as well as all acts committed in the interest of
the other Party, shall be regarded as political
crimes and offences within the meaning of
this article.
(2) The amnesty shall also apply to acts which have been made the subject of
administrative proceedings or proceedings
other than before a court of law and to
contraventions of pro-visions in force as
regards prisoners of war and interned civilians
and, generally, as regards subj
ects of the other Party.
(3) The putting into effect of the amnesty under
points 1 and 2 of this Article entails the
obligation to institute no new judicial invest
igations, to discontinue proceedings which have
already been instituted and to suspend execut
ion of sentences which have already been
passed.
(4) The suspension of the execution of a s
entence does not necessarily imply that the
prisoner shall be set at liberty, but in such
an event he must be immediately handed over,
with all the papers referring to his case, to th
e authorities of the St
ate of which he is a
national.
Nevertheless, if such person
states that he desires not to
be repatriated, or if the
authorities of the country of which he is a nat
ional refuse to admit
him, such person may
be again placed in custody.
(5) Persons against whom legal proceedings hav
e been taken, or a pr
eliminary judicial
investigation has been instit
uted, or who have been summoned
to appear before a court of

Article 11
§ 1.
Russia and the Ukraine shall restore to Pol
and the following objects which were removed
from the territory of the Po
lish Republic to Russia and t
he Ukraine subsequent to January
1, 1772.
(a) all war trophies (e. g., fl
ags, colours, military insigni
a of all kinds, cannons, weapons,
regimental and other insignia),
together with the trophies taken
from the Polish nation after
1792, during the struggle for independence wh
ich was maintained by Poland against
Czarist Russia. Nevertheless, trophies of
the Polish-Russo-Ukrainian war of 1918-1921
shall not be restored.
(b) libraries, archaeological collections and archiv
es, collections of works of art, collections
of any nature and objects of historical, natio
nal, artistic, archaeological, scientific and
general educational value.
The collections of objects included under le
tters (a) and (b) of this paragraph shall be
restored irrespective of the conditions under
which, and the pretexts upon which they were
carried off and irrespective of the authoritie
s responsible for such removal and without
regard to the person whether physical or le
gal to whom they belonged prior to, or
subsequent to their removal.
§ 2.
The obligation to make restitution shall not apply to:
(a) objects carried off from the
territories situated on the east of
the frontiers of Poland, as
determined by the present Treaty,
in so far as it shall be proved that such objects are a
product of White-Ruthenian or Ukrainian civili
sation, and that they were subsequently
removed to Poland otherwise than as the result
of a voluntary transaction or of succession;
(b) objects which passed from the possession
of their legal owner into Russian or
Ukrainian territory as the result of a vol
untary transaction or of succession, or were
removed to the territories of Russia
and the Ukraine by their legal owner.
§ 3.
If there exists in Poland any coll
ections or objects falling within the class specified in letters
(a) and (b) of § 1 of this Article, which
have been removed from Russia or the Ukraine
during the same period, such collections and
objects shall be restored to Russia and the
Ukraine under the conditions laid dow
n in § 1 and 2 of this Article.

§ 4.
Russia and the Ukraine shall restore to Poland
objects carried off from
the territory of the
Polish Republic subsequent to January 1, 1772, wh
ich relate to the te
rritory of the Polish
Republic, such as archives, registers, extr
acts from archives, deeds, documents, maps,
plans, sketches, together with plates and discs, seal
s, etc., of all State
institutions and self-
governing, private and eccles
iastical institutions.
Nevertheless, such of the
above-mentioned objects as although not exclusively connected
with the territory of the pres
ent Polish Republic, cannot be divided up, shall be restored in
their entirety to Poland.
§ 5.
Russia and the Ukraine shall han
d over the archives, register
s, extracts from archives,
deeds, documents, map, plans and sketches belongi
ng to legislative institutions and
central, provincial and local organisations of
all ministries, services, administrations,
autonomous bodies and private
and public institutions, wh
ich date from the period
between January 1, 1772, and November 9,
1918 – the period during which Russia
administered the territory of the
Polish Republic – in so far as
such objects relate to the
territory of the present Polish Republic and are
actually within the territories of Russia and
the Ukraine.
If objects referred to in the same paragraph whic
h are of special interest to territories
remaining part of Russia or the Ukraine exis
t in Poland, the latter country undertakes to
restore such objects to Russia and t
he Ukraine, under the same conditions.
§ 6.
The provisions of § 5 of th
is Article shall not apply to:
(a) archives, registers, etc., relating to oper
ations subsequent to 1876 which were carried
on by the former Czarist authorities against t
he revolutionary movements in Poland, until
such time as a special convention shall be
concluded between the two Parties as to the
restitution of such objects to Poland;
(b) objects of a secret m
ilitary nature relating to the period subsequent to 1870.
§ 7.
The two Contracting Parties fully recognise
that the value of syst
ematic, scientifically
prepared and complete collections, such as
form a fundamental part of collections of
world-wide scientific importanc
e, ought in no way to be impaired and accordingly agree to
the following provisions: should the handing ov
er of a certain object, which is to be
restored to Poland, under § 1 (b) of this articl
e, prove likely to impair the completeness of
such a collection, such object shall, save w
here it is closely bound
up with the history and
culture of Poland, remain on the spot, subjec
t to the approval of
both Parties represented
on the Mixed Commission referred to in § 15 of the
present article; it shall in that case be
exchanged for an object of
the same artistic
or scientific value.
§ 8.
The two Contracting Parties dec
lare themselves ready to
conclude special Conventions
concerning the restitution,
purchase, or exchange of objects
included in the categories
defined in § 1 (b) of this Article, if t
hese objects shall have been transferred from the
territory of one Party to that of
the other as the result of
a voluntary transaction, or of

succession, in so far as such obj
ects are the product of the scientif
ic, artistic, etc., activities
of the Party concerned.
§ 9.
Russia and the Ukraine agree to make restituti
on to Poland of such of
the following objects
as belong to the State or to National instit
utions, autonomous bodies, private or public
institutions, and in general to all legal and ph
ysical persons, and were taken with or without
consent into Russia and the Ukraine from the
territory of the Polish Republic after August
1st, 1914, that is to say, in the period from
the outbreak of the great
war until October 1,
1915;
(a) archives, acts, documents, registers,
account books and mercantile books, journals
and correspondence, geodesic and land-surveyi
ng instruments, photographic plates and
negatives, seals, maps, plans and drawings
with corresponding sketches and scales, with
the exception of objects referri
ng to military matters of a se
cret nature which belong to
military institutions;
(b) libraries, collections of books, collect
ions of archives and
objets d’art and their
inventories, catalogues and bibliographical materi
al, works of art, antiquities, all collections
and objects of historical, national, artistic or
scientific interest, bells and objects belonging
to any religious denomination;
(c) scientific and scholastic laboratories, collect
ions of all kinds, scholastic and scientific
accessories, instruments and apparatus and a
ll auxiliary and experimental material.
It shall be permissible to make restitution of
the individual objects referred to under the
heading (c) of this paragraph or to replace
them by an equivalent object to be decided
upon by agreement between the two Part
ies represented on the mixed Committee
provided for in § 15 of this article. Objects,
however, which date from a period prior to 1870
or which have been offered by the Poles ma
y only be replaced by a suitable equivalent
after agreement between the two Parties
represented on the afore-mentioned mixed
Committee.
§ 10.
The two Contracting Parties undertake reciproca
lly to make restitution in a similar manner
of collections and objects specified in § 9 of th
is article, taken with or without consent from
the territory of the other
Party after October 1, 1915.
§ 11.
Restitution shall be made of obj
ects specified in §§ 9 and 10 of this article which are not
the property of the State or
State institutions
upon the request of the Governments, made
in accordance with the declarations of the ow
ners, in order that such objects may be
restored to the owners.
§ 12.
Restitution shall be made of the
objects specified in §§ 9 and 10 of
this article in so far as
they are or may be actually in
the possession of Stat
e institutions or pr
ivate institutions
belonging to the State which make
s restitution. The obligation to
prove that the object has
been lost or destroyed shall rest
with the State making restitution.

If the objects enumerated in §§
9 and 10 of this article are in the possession of third
persons, legal or physical, these persons shall
be obliged to deliver them up with a view to
their restitution. Upon the r
equest of the owner, such of
the objects enumerated in §§ 9
and 10 of this article, as may be already in
his possession, shall also be restored.
§ 1
З
.
The State making restitution s
hall pay the expenses incurred in connection with the return
and the restitution of the objects
within the limits of its own terri
tory as far as the frontier.
The return and the restitution of objects
shall be made notwithstand
ing prohibitions or
restrictions on export, and su
ch objects shall not be liabl
e to any duty or any tax.
§ 14.
Each of the Contracting Parties agrees to
return to the other
Party property of an
educational or artistic value
given or bequeathed before November
7, 1917 (New Style) to
their own State or to the privat
e, scientific and artistic inst
itutions within that State by
individuals or public bodies of
the other Party in so far as such gifts or bequests have been
made in conformity with the
laws of the said State.
The two Contracting Parties reserve the ri
ght of concluding special Conventions with
regard to the aforementioned gifts and
bequests made after November 7, 1917.
§ 15.
For the purpose of putting into force the provisions
of this article, a special mixed paritary
Commission shall be established within a period
of six months at
the latest of the
ratifications of this Treaty, and shall sit at
Moscow; this Commission shall be composed of
three representatives of each Party
and such experts as may be required.
In the exercise of its duties the Commission s
hall conform to the instructions contained in
Annex No. 3 of this Treaty.
Article 12.
The two Contracting Parties agr
ee that State property of what
ever nature which is within
the territory of one of t
he Contracting Parties, or which is
to be restored to that Party by
virtue of the present Treaty, shall be its
property indisputably. The following shall be
regarded as State property: all property of
whatever nature and all rights of possession
belonging to the State itself, and
all property of all State instit
utions, property and rights of
possession belonging to appanages, property of
the Imperial Cabinet and the Palaces,
property of all kinds and t
he rights of possession belonging
to the former Emperor of
Russia and the members of the
Imperial House, and the property
of all kinds and rights of
ownership granted by forme
r Emperors of Russia.
The two Contracting Parties mutually renounce
the right to any form of compensation
which might involve the partition of State pr
operty, subject to any contrary provisions
contained in the present Treaty.
All rights and titles of the Russian Treasury to
property of any nature which is within the
limits of Polish territory and all claims against ph
ysical or legal persons, in so far as such
rights, titles and claims apply to
property in Polish territory, shall be placed to the credit of
the Polish Government, as regards any surp
lus which may remain due over and above the

reciprocal claims of the debtors, based on § 2 of
article 17; the value
of such claims must
be deducted.
The Russian Government shall transmit to t
he Polish Government all acts and documents
confirming the rights specified in this Article,
in so far as they
are at present in its
possession. If this should prove impossible wit
hin a period of one year from the ratification
of the present Treaty,
the acts and documents in questi
on shall be considered as lost.
Article 13.
Russia and the Ukraine agree to pay to Poland
within the period of one
year at the latest
after the ratification of the pr
esent Treaty the sum of
30 million roubles gold in specie and
in bars, on the ground of the acti
ve participation of the territo
ry of the Polish Republic in
the economic life of the former Russian Empire
; this participation was recognised in the
Peace Preliminaries of October 12, 1920.
Article 14.
The restitution to Poland of the State-owned
rolling stock in Russia and the Ukraine shall
be made in conformity with
the following principles:
(a) Restitution in kind must be made to Po
land of the rolling stock on the lines with a
normal European gauge; the amount to be restor
ed and the conditions of restitution are
provided for in Annex 4 of this Treaty.
(b) The rolling stock on the broad-gauge lines
and that on the normal gauge lines,
transformed in Russia and the Ukraine to broad
gauge before the date of the signature of
the Treaty of Peace, shall rema
in in Russia and in the Ukrai
ne; up to such an amount and
under such conditions as are provided fo
r in Annex 4 of the present Treaty.
(c) As regards all other railway material with t
he exception of rolling stock, a part of this
shall be restored to Poland in kind and part sha
ll remain in Russia and the Ukraine; the
quantity and conditions of transfer are prov
ided for in Annex 4 of this Treaty.
The Parties agree to fix the sum of twenty-
nine millions (29,000,000) gold roubles as the
value of the railway material referred to
in §§ (a), (b) and (c) of this Article.
(2) The two Contracting Parties agree reciproca
lly to make restitution, in accordance with
the general conditions laid down in Article 15 of
this Treaty, of the State river navigation
material (boats, mechanical ap
paratus, technical appliances
on the banks and all material
for river transport), together with the material
for the upkeep of bridges and roads, in so far
as such material is, or shall be, in the posse
ssion of State or private
institutions belonging
to the State which makes restitution. The pu
tting into force of the provisions of this
paragraph and the settlement of all questions c
onnected with it shall be entrusted to the
Mixed Restitution Commission provided fo
r in Article 15 of this Treaty.
Article 15.
(1) Russia and the Ukraine agree that, upon
the request of the Polish Government,
supported by the declarations of
the owners, restit
ution shall be made to Poland for the
purpose of restoration to t
heir owners of all property
belonging to self-governing and
municipal administrations, in
stitutions, and legal and physical persons, which was carried
off with or without consent from the territory
of the Polish Republic into Russia and the

Ukraine during the period beginning August 1 (New
Style) 1914, that is to say, from the
outbreak of the world war until
October 1 (New Style) 1915.
(2) Each of the two Contracting Parties agr
ees that, upon the reques
t of the Government
of the other Party, supported by the declarations
of the owners, restit
ution shall be made of
all the property of autonomous bodies, instit
utions, and legal and physical persons, which
was carried off with or without cons
ent into the territory of t
he other Party after October 1
(New Style) 1915.
(3) Restitution shall be made of th
e property specified in §§ 1 and 2
of this Article, in so far
as this is now or may be in the possession of
Government or private
institutions in the
State making restitution. The obligation to furn
ish proof that the object has been destroyed
or lost shall rest upon the
State making restitution.
If the property referred to in §§
1 and 2 of this Article consti
tutes a means of production,
and if it was formerly in the possession of State
or private institutions
in the State making
restitution, and if it was subs
equently destroyed or lost by
reason of force majeure (vis
major), the Government of t
he State making restitution sha
ll be obliged to provide suitable
compensation for such objects.
If the property referred to in §§
1 and 2 of this Article shall be in the possession of third
persons, legal or physical, they shall
be obliged to make restitution of it.
Similarly, upon the request of t
he owners, restitution shall be ma
de of the property referred
to in §§ 1 and 2 of this Article, whic
h may be already in their possession.
(4) The property to be restored
in virtue of §§ 1, 2 and 3 of
the present Article may, by
agreement between the two Parties, be restored
in the shape of a suitable equivalent and
not in specie.
(5) A complete and reciprocal statement of
accounts shall be made between the owners of
the property restored and the Gove
rnment of the State making re
stitution; this statement
shall refer to the rights attaching to the
property restored and mu
st be made within a
period of eighteen months from the ra
tification of the present Treaty.
On the one side these statements
shall show all subsidies, loans and credits granted in
connection with the restitution,
excluding credits guaranteed by
securities. On the other
side, they shall include costs incurred by t
he evacuation, the amount due for raw material,
semi-manufactured products, merchandise and capi
tal confiscated by the State making
restitution. Similarly, the st
atements of accounts shall also
include compensation for the
partial or complete appropriation to any productive
enterprise of the pro
perty which is to be
restored. The Governments of
the Contracting Parties shall
guarantee the payment of the
sums due in accordance with the statements
of account rendered in the manner afore-
mentioned. The rendering of t
he accounts in question shall be no cause for suspending
the process of restitution.
(6) Restitution shall be made at
the cost of the Stat
e making restitution
within the limits of
its territory as far as the frontier.
The restitution of property shall be carried out in
spite of any prohibitions or restrictions on
export which may exist, and without t
he imposition of any duty or tax.

(7) Within six weeks, at most,
dating from the ratification of
this Treaty, a Mixed Paritary
Restitution Commission composed of five repr
esentatives of each Pa
rty and the necessary
experts, shall be created for the purpose of putti
ng into force the provisions of this article
and shall sit at Moscow. This Commission shall
be instructed to fix the equivalents in the
cases specified in §§ 3 and 4 of this article,
to draw up the rule
s for the rendering of
accounts between the owners and the Governm
ents of opposing parties, and to see that
the settlements are duly carried out; to give dec
isions in case of doubt as regards the
nationality of physical and lega
l persons and, in case of necessity, to assist the
Government services concerned in finding
the property which is to be restored.
Not only the orders for evacuation, but
any other documents and papers certified by
witnesses shall be admitted as
proof of the carrying
out of the evacuation.
The two Contracting Parties agree to co
-operate fully and completely with the
aforementioned Mixed Commission in the accomplis
hment of its duties.
Restitution shall
not be made of property belonging to physical
and legal persons of t
he other Contracting
Party.
Joint Stock Companies and all other Companies
, the majority of whose stocks and shares
belonged, at the last general m
eeting of the shareholders, befor
e the removal from Poland
into Russia or into the Ukrai
ne, to Russian, Ukrainian or Wh
ite Ruthenian nationals, shall
be recognised as Russian, Ukrainian and White Ruthenian respectively.
Joint Stock Companies and all other Companies
, the majority of whose stocks and shares
belonged to Polish citizens at the last general
meeting of shareholders before the removal
from Russia and the Ukraine into Pol
and, shall be recognised as Polish.
The nationality of the sharehol
ders shall be determined in
accordance with the present
Treaty.
Poland assumes responsibility for all the cl
aims of other States against Russia and the
Ukraine which may be formulated by reason of
the restitution made to Poland of property
belonging to citizens or legal and physical persons
of such other States
. At the same time
Russia and the Ukraine reserve the right to
make any claims against Poland in this
connection.
(8) All requests for the restitution of
property should be addressed to the Mixed
Commission within one year from
the ratification of this Treaty;
after the expiration of this
period no request shall be recognised by
the State making restitution.
The decision of the Mixed Commission concerning
restitution shall be gi
ven within a period
of three months from t
he date upon which the corresponding request shall have been
addressed to it. Restitution of the property
shall be made within a per
iod of six months
from the date of t
he decision of the Mixed Restitution
Commission; the fact that the limits
of time provided for the decision and for the re
stitution have not been
respected shall in no
case exempt the State making
the restitution from the oblig
ation to restore the property
which may have been claimed withi
n the period provided for.

Article 16.
(1) Russia and the Ukraine agree to settle wit
h Poland the accounts which relate to funds
or capital bequeathed or given to physical and l
egal persons of Polish nationality, which in
virtue of the regulations in fo
rce were deposited or placed on
account in the State banks or
the credit institutions of
the former Russian Empire.
(2) Russia and the Ukraine agree to settle
with Poland accounts which relate to sums
belonging to the public institutions of Poland
and which, by virtue of existing provisions,
were on deposit or were placed on account in the
State banks or in the cr
edit institutions of
the former Russian Empire.
(3) Russia and the Ukraine agree to settle
with Poland accounts concerning property and
capital of Polish origin administered by
the Russian Government, which have been
liquidated or paid into Treasury funds and whic
h formerly belonged to scientific, religious
or charitable institutions or societies,
together with accounts c
oncerning property and
capital to be applied to the maintenanc
e of the churches and the clergy.
(4) Russia and the Ukraine agree to settle
with Poland the accounts concerning special
funds and capital together wit
h the accounts of public moneys destined for poor law relief
which were administered by pr
ivate institutions and which by
reason of their origin and
purpose were either partly, or wholly, connect
ed with the territories of the Polish Republic
or the citizens of that Republic.
(5) The two Contracting Parties have agreed to
accept January 1 (Old Style), 1916, as the
fixed date for the settlement of accounts referr
ed to in §§ 1, 2, 3 a
nd 4 of this Article.
(6) As soon as the settlement of accounts rela
ting to capital held on account by the State
Treasury is completed, a preliminary liquidati
on of these accounts shall be effected; sums
assigned by the State Treasury fo
r the increase of this capital shall not be regarded as a
debt payable to the Treasur
y out of such capital.
As soon as the settlement of accounts referred to
in §§ 1, 2, 3 and 4 of this Article shall be
terminated, Russia and the Ukraine agree to retu
rn respectively to Poland the property
capital and cash balances involved.
(7) In the settlement of accounts relating
to funds and capital which were deposited with
the Treasury or in State institutions or in
the private institutions
of the former Russian
Empire, Russia and the Ukraine agree to take in
to consideration in favour of Poland, the
loss of a part of the purchasing power of
the Russian monetary unit
(paper money) from
October 1, 1915, until the date
when the settlement of account
s shall be terminated. In the
settlement of accounts concerning special fu
nds and capital which were in the possession
of special services or which had been paid into
the funds of the Treasury of the former
Russian Empire, no account shall be taken of t
he alteration in the pur
chasing power of the
monetary unit.
(8) In the final settlement of
accounts relating to special capital, funds and property, all
moveable property which may be in the possessi
on of the Governments of Russia and the
Ukraine shall be restored to Poland, if it
shall be shown that this property has been
disposed of by the Governments;
restitution shall
be made of the equivalent value; this
latter stipulation does not concern Russian securities.

Article 17.
(1) Russia and the Ukraine undertake to effect
with Poland a settlement of accounts in
respect of deposits and securities paid by
Polish individuals and legal persons into
Russian and Ukrainian State Banks which have
been nationalised or liquidated, as well as
into State institutions and Savings Banks.
In paying the sums due on these accounts, Ru
ssia and the Ukraine shall respect such
rights of Polish individuals and legal persons
as have, at any time, been recognised as
appertaining to Russian and Ukrainian individuals and legal persons.
As regards individuals, Russia and the Ukraine
in settling the above accounts shall, in the
interests of such persons, take into consider
ation the partial loss of
the purchasing power
of the Russian currency which has occurred bet
ween October 1, 1915, and the day when
such settlements of accounts shall be completed.
(2) The Mixed Commission on the
liquidation of accounts provided for in Article 18 of the
present Treaty shall be entrust
ed with the settlement of questions
, whether of a private or
legal nature, arising out of
the relations between individ
uals and legal persons of the
Contracting States, and of legal claims subm
itted by individuals and legal persons to the
Government and to Government Institutions of
the opposing Party, and vice versa, in so
far as such questions are not settled by the present Treaty.
The present paragraph refers to
the position of affairs as
existing in law before the
signature of the present Treaty.
Article 18.
(1) In order to proceed to the settlement of a
ccounts provided for in articles 14, 15, 16 and
17 of the present Treaty and to draw up rule
s governing these settlements in cases which
are not provided for in the present Treaty,
and in order to fix the amount, method and
dates of the payments to be made in settl
ement of the above-m
entioned accounts, a
Mixed Commission for the Settlem
ent of Accounts shall be es
tablished within six weeks
from the ratification of the
present Treaty. This Commission
shall be composed of five
representatives of each Party and the requisite
number of experts, and
shall have its seat
at Warsaw.
(2) Unless otherwise provided by the present Treat
y, October 1 (New Style), 1915, shall be
fixed as the fixed date from wh
ich all accounts shall be made up.
(3) All settlements of accounts in
respect of real estate sha
ll be effected in Russian gold
roubles; in all other cases the settlement of
accounts shall be effected in accordance with
the principles laid down in articl
es 16, and 17 of the present Treaty.
Article 19.
Russia and the Ukraine hereby discharge Poland fr
om all responsibility in respect of debts
and obligations of whatever nat
ure incurred by the former Russian Empire, in particular in
respect of obligations arisi
ng out of the issue of paper
money, treasury bonds, debentures,
series (sic) and certificates of
the Russian Treasury, in respec
t of the foreign or domestic
debts of the former Russian Empire, of guarantees
granted to institutions and undertakings

of whatever nature, as well as of guaranteed
debts of such institutions and undertakings,
with the exception of guarantees granted to
institutions and undertakings on Polish
territory.
Article 20.
In accordance with the principle of the mo
st favoured nation clause, Russia and the
Ukraine recognise, ipso facto and without a spec
ial convention, the claims of Poland, and
Polish nationals and legal persons to all such
rights, privileges and
similar benefits, with
regard to the restitution of property and
compensation for damages incurred during the
revolution and the Civil War in Russia and in t
he Ukraine, as the latter States may have
recognised or may recognise, directly or indi
rectly, as due to any third State, or to
nationals and legal pers
ons of that State.
In the cases referred to in § 1 of the pr
esent article, Russia and the Ukraine shall
recognise the validity, not
only of the original document
s confirming the rights of
possession of Polish individual
s and legal persons, but also of
such documents as may be
issued by the Mixed Commissions provided fo
r under articles 15 and 18 of the present
Treaty.
Article 21.
The two Contracting Parties undertake to enter
into negotiations concerning a commercial
convention and a Convention regarding exch
ange of goods by barter within a period not
exceeding six weeks from date of
ratification of the present
Treaty. They further undertake
to commence negotiations as soon as possible with a view to concluding consular, postal,
telegraphic, railway, health and veterinary c
onventions, and likewise a convention for the
improvement of the conditions
of navigation on the navigabl
e waterways of the Dnieper-
Vistula and the Dnieper-Dzwina.
Article 22.
Until such time as commercial and railwa
y conventions have been concluded, the two
Contracting Parties undertake to permit the fo
rwarding of goods in transit subject to the
following conditions:
(1) The principles laid down in the present ar
ticle shall serve as a basis for the future
convention on transit.
(2) The two Contracting Parties mutually agree to
the free transit of go
ods by all railways
and waterways open to transit.
The transport of goods in transit shall be affect
ed in accordance with the regulations laid
down by each Contracting State in relation
to traffic on railways an
d waterways, regard
being had to the transport capacity of such rail-
and waterways, and to the requirements of
home traffic.
(3) The two Contracting Parties intend the term
“free transit of goods” to imply that goods
transported from Russia and the Ukraine, or
to Russia and the Ukraine, through Poland –
as well as from or to Poland through Ru
ssia and the Ukraine – shall be exempt from
customs or transit duties of every kind, and
from other charges on transit, whether such
goods pass directly through the territory of one of
the Contracting Parties, or whether they
are unloaded, provisionally stor
ed in warehouses, or re-loaded
for forwarding to a more

distant destination, provided that such
goods are handled in warehouses under
supervision of the Customs aut
horities of the country through which they pass in transit.
Poland retains the right to lay down the conditions under which goods of German or
Austrian origin imported from Germany or Au
stria into Russia or the Ukraine may be
transported through Poland.
(4) The through-transport of goods intended fo
r armaments or for m
ilitary equipment, and
of all military stores
shall be prohibited.
This restriction shall not apply to articles wh
ich, although they are m
ilitary stores, are not
destined for military purposes.
A declaration from the Government concerned
that such articles will not be used as war
material shall be required for the
through-transport of such articles.
Exceptions may also be made with regard to
goods to which special prohibitions have
been applied in the interests of public health and
for the prevention of diseases of animals
and plants.
(5) Goods from another State wh
ich are in transit through t
he territory of one of the
Contracting Parties shall not on their entry into
the territory of the
other Party be subjected
to a different or higher rate
of duty than would be levied on sim
ilar goods if they were sent
directly from their country of origin.
(6) Dues, taxes and other charges payable on t
he transport of goods in transit, shall not be
higher than those levied on the local transport
of similar goods by the same route and in
the same direction.
In so far as no dues, taxes or other charges
are payable on the transport of local goods in
Russia and the Ukraine, the charges on the trans
port of goods in transit from or to Poland,
through Russia and the Ukraine, shall not be
higher than those fixed for the through-
transport of goods of the most favoured nation.
In view of the need of suitable frontier st
ations at points where railways of the two
Contracting Parties meet, t
he following shall provisiona
lly be regarded as forwarding
stations for transit from Ru
ssia and the Ukraine across Poland, and from Poland across
Russia and the Ukraine: in the Baranowiczi-M
insk and Rowno-Szepietowkain sectors, i. e.,
in the territory of White Ruthenia and the Ukrai
ne, for the receipt of
goods coming from the
West, Minsk station (until Nie
goreloje station shall be equipped for this purpose) and
Szopietowaka station (until Kryw
in station shall be so equipped)
; and in the territory of
Poland, for goods coming from the Ea
st, Stolbce and Zdolbunowo stations.
The rules and regulations for transit traffi
c shall be determined by the railway convention
which is to be concluded between the two Contra
cting Parties, after t
he ratification of the
present Treaty.
At the same time, the Contract
ing Parties shall take the necessary measures to organise
the other lines as soon as possible for transit
traffic; the points of
junction of the railways
shall, however, be determined by special agreements.

All frontier stations which ar
e or may be open to international communication shall serve
as forwarding points for the transit of goods to
the frontiers of the tw
o Parties which border
on other States.
For reloading goods in transit sent
by river, Pinsk or Prypet
Junction shall be the reloading
stations, and for this purpose a railway line shall
be constructed from this point to the port,
in order to bring up wagons
for the purpose or reloading.
Article 23.
Russia and the Ukraine declare that all under
takings entered into by them with regard to
Poland and all rights acquired by them in virt
ue of the present Treaty, shall apply to all
territory situated East of the fr
ontier of the State s
pecified in article 11
of the Treaty, which
formed part of the former Russi
an Empire and was represented by Russia and the Ukraine
when this Treaty was concluded.
All the afore-mentioned rights and undertakings s
hall apply expressly to White Ruthenia
and its citizens.
Article 24.
Immediately after the ratification of the pres
ent Treaty, diplomatic relations between the
two Contracting Parties shall be resumed.
Article 25.
The present Treaty shall be draw
n up in Polish, Russian and Ukrainian, in three original
copies.
The three texts shall be considered as authentic
for the interpretati
on of the Treaty.
Article 26.
The present Treaty shall be ratified and shall
come into force from the time of the
exchange of the protocol
s of ratification, unless otherwis
e provided in the Treaty or
annexes. The ratification of the present Treaty
shall take place within thirty days from the
date of its signature; the exchange
of the protocols of ratifica
tion shall take place at Minsk
within 45 days from the date of the
signature of the present Treaty.
Wherever in the present Treaty or its Annexes,
the time of ratificati
on of the Treaty is
mentioned, this shall be understood to refer to t
he time of the exchange
of the protocols of
ratification.
In testimony whereof the plenipotentiaries of
the two Contracting Parties have themselves
signed the present Treaty and have t
hereto affixed their seals.
Done and signed at Riga, the eighteenth day
of March one thousa
nd nine hundred and
twenty one.
(L. S.) JEAN DABSKI.
(L. S.) STANISLAS KAUZIK.
(L. S.) EDOUARD LECHOWICZ.
(L. S.) HENRI STRASBURGER.
(L. S.) LEON WASILEWSKI.
(L. S.) A. JOFFE.

(L. S.) GANETSKI.
(L. S.) E. KVIRING.
(L. S.) G. KOTCHOUBINSKI.
(L. S.) OBOLENSKI.
[Annex No. 1, map, not reproduced in this Series.]
ANNEX No. 2 TO THE TREATY OF PEACE.
With a view to facilitating the carrying out of §
7 of Article 6 of the Tr
eaty of Peace, the two
Contracting Parties have agreed to apply the fo
llowing regulations to
the property which
persons who have exercised the right of
option, are entitled
to take with them:
The weight of the luggage, exclusive of
hand-luggage, shall not exceed 10 ponds per
person:
As regards articles, the export
of which is prohibited, the per
sons opting shall be permitted
to take with them:
(1) From Russia and the Ukraine, a maximum sum of 100,000 roubles in paper-money of
whatever issue, and from Poland, 200,000 Po
lish marks per person opting. A special
authorisation will be r
equired for the exportation of a
sum exceeding these amounts.
(2) Articles of gold or platinum, not exceedi
ng a weight of 25 zolotniks per article;
manufactured articles containing gold or plat
inum, the total weight
of which does not
exceed 25 zolotniks, and manufactured articles c
ontaining silver, the weight of which does
not exceed 5 pounds for each person.
Silver and gold watches and chains, wedding-rings
and ladies’ silver purses, of which each
adult person has the right to export one, shal
l not be included in the maximum weight laid
down in the present paragraph.
(3) Precious stones (diamonds, brilliants, sapphi
res, emeralds and rubies) the total weight
of which does not exceed one carat. The sa
me regulations shall apply to pearls.
(4) Articles which are indispensable to work
men, artisans, agricultural labourers, doctors,
artists, scientists, etc., in t
he exercise of their trade or prof
ession and the total weight of
which exceeds the maximum weight laid down
above, must in each case be accompanied
by a special declaration.
One sewing-machine per family.
(5) Complete articles of furniture, carri
ages, waggons and sledges, live-stock, machines,
parts of machinery, instrument
s, scientific instruments, ch
irurgical instruments, heavy
musical instruments, if the person opting return
s to his country by road. As a provisional
measure, railways and boats sha
ll not accept for transport any
of the articles mentioned,
except in the cases referred to
in § 4 of the present Annex.

hand over the original document, Poland wil
l be entitled to demand a copy at her own
expense.
(3) The value of the rolling stock restored in
kind, to be deducted fr
om the sum mentioned
in the second paragraph of Article 1 of the 1st
Part of the present Annex, will be estimated
in accordance with the following rules:
(a) The assessment of the price of the ro
lling stock to be restored in kind will be made
independently in the case of each group of
the same class and regardless of the number
of items contained therein, in accordance
with rules drawn up for estimating the general
value of rolling stock of the same class
(Article 1 of Part
II of this Annex).
(b) The amount of rolling stock requiring repa
irs must not, in comparison with the total
amount of rolling stock restored, exceed 50
% in the case of locomotives, 35 % for
passenger carriages and 20 % for goods waggons.
Should the amount of rolli
ng stock requiring repairs exceed the afore-mentioned
percentage, Russia and the Ukrai
ne may at their own expense r
epair such material within
the period laid down in Article 3 of
Part II of the present Annex.
(c) Payment for rolling stock in a bad state of r
epair included in the material to be actually
restored, in excess of the perc
entage fixed in § (b) of
the present articl
e, will be made by
Russia and the Ukraine to Poland in accordance
with the rules laid down
in article 4 of Part
II of this Annex.
Should the proportion of rolling stock in good condi
tion to be restored to Poland prove, as
a result of repairs carried out in Russia and the
Ukraine, to be greater than that laid down
in § (b) of this article, Poland shall pay to
Russia and the Ukraine the cost of such repairs
in accordance with the same rules.
(4) The value of any other railway material,
with the exception of rolling stock, to be
restored to Poland will be fixed by the Mix
ed Restitution Commission on the basis of the
pre-war listed prices. The sum thus obtained
will be deducted from the sum referred to in
the third paragraph of Arti
cle 1 of the 1st Part
of the present Annex.
PART II.
(1) The value of the rolling stock to be rest
ored will be calculated in the following manner:
(a) Locomotives, according to the formula:
X = m/A (A – B) + n
X = the required value of the locomotive
A = the average life of the locomo
tives, to be estimated at 39.5
years in the case of those
which are not included in the inventory
В
= average age of locomotive on January 1, 1921
m = cost of locomotive as given in the inventory
n = cost of locomotive parts
after dismantling, fix
ed at 15 % of the pric
e in the inventory
(b) Passenger carriages — 65 % of their listed price.

requiring extensive repairs
24 % of the price
in the inventory
requiring average repairs
14 % of the price
in the inventory
requiring running repairs 10 gold roubles
c) Goods waggons
requiring complete overhauling for runni
ng repairs or extensive repairs
7.5 % of the price in the inventory
requiring running repairs 6 gold roubles
Rolling stock requiring casual repairs will
be placed in one of the
above categories or will
be estimated separately in a
ccordance with the 1914 prices.
(5) Should it be ascertained that in the locomo
tives restored to Poland the essential parts
of the engine are lacking (framework, boilers, etc.) and that subsidiary portions
(instruments, fittings, etc.) are wholly or parti
ally lacking, Russia and the Ukraine will pay to
Poland the price of these parts after deducting
5 % of the costs incurred in connection with
the repair of all the locomotives to be restored.
(6) The wear and tear of the rolling stock fo
r broad gauge lines which is to be made good
to Poland in the form of money amounts to
120,000 gold roubles, which will be deducted
from the sum referred to
in the second paragraph of article
1 of the 1st Part of the Present
Annex.
PART III.
(1) In view of the fall in the purchasing power
of gold, sums in gold roubles arrived at in
accordance with the stipulations in the pr
evious articles will be increased by 60 %.
(2) The rolling stock which belongs to any distri
ct and is to be restored will be collected in
groups at certain points, w
here it will be examined by r
epresentatives of the Mixed
Restitution Commission in any manner whic
h they deem necessary, without, however,
imposing too heavy a burden on the local wor
kshops. The Commission will then classify
the rolling stock in the various categories ment
ioned above, will estimate, should it think it
desirable, the cost of repairs
in accordance with the 1914 price and will draw up a protocol
of receipt in which it will indicate the class,
the cost of repairs and t
he price of the parts,
the absence of which has been ascertained.
On the completion of this duty, it will dispatch
the rolling stock thus selected to the frontier
stations, where it will be handed over
to Poland. At these stations no new certificate shall
be drawn up; the state and amount of
the rolling stock shall merely be examined to see if it
corresponds to the information given in the certificate of receipt.
(3) In principle, rolling stock re
stored to Poland must be dispat
ched to frontier stations, with
all the parts necessary to enable it to be
placed on the rails. If the Russo-Ukrainian
members of the Mixed Restitut
ion Commission should, however,
ascertain, after the local
railway administration has examined the informa
tion given by the Po
lish members of the

Mixed Restitution Commission with
regard to the place where t
hese parts are to be found,
that the parts in question are missing, the ro
lling stock will be handed
over without these
parts.
(4) All accounts arising from the condition
of the rolling stock restored will be brought
together under one head and not drawn up
separately for each group handed over.
PART IV.
Rolling stock and other railway material belongi
ng to private companies and rolling stock
belonging to private corporations and individ
uals in Poland which has been removed from
the territory of Poland into
Russia or the Ukraine will be re
stored in accordance with the
provisions of article 15 of the Tr
eaty of Peace, as the provisions of article 14 of the Treaty
of Peace and the present Annex
do not apply to this material.
ANNEX No. 5 OF THE TREATY OF PEACE.
SUPPLEMENTARY PROTOCOL TO ARTIC
LE 2 OF THE TREATY OF PEACE
BETWEEN POLAND, RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE.
In order to extend and complete
the provisions of Article 2 of
the Treaty of Peace, the two
Contracting Parties have agreed as follows:
(1) The obligation undertaken by
the two Parties, namely to
grant each other the right of
free navigation and free rafting,
with the use of towpaths, on
that part of the Dwina which
forms the frontier, shall come into force from
the date of the signatur
e of the Treaty of
Peace.
(2) Poland shall grant the same privileges to
Russia, the Ukraine and White Russia on that
part of the Dwina which forms the
frontier between Poland and Latvia.
(3) Without the special consent of the other
Party, it shall not be lawful for either
Contracting Party to undertake works on the
banks or in the neighbourhood of the river or
to set up hydraulic plant as a result of whic
h the waterways in the territory of the other
Contracting Party might be deteriorated. The
same rule shall apply to any construction
which might raise the level of the wa
ter beyond the frontier of that State.
(4) Should natural obstacles preventing navigation,
rafting or the free flow of the current be
formed in the bed of rivers constituting the fr
ontier or used in common as waterways, each
of the two Parties undertakes to
remove such obstacles at t
he request of the other Party.
The cost of dredging shall be fixed and divi
ded between the Parties concerned in
accordance with an agreement
to be concluded before-hand.
(5) The question of damming rivers forming
the frontier shall be
settled by an agreement
between the two States.
(6) The construction of drainage canals connect
ed with a river forming the frontier shall be
permitted in so far as such wor
ks do not injure the other Party.
This present Protocol shall form an integral part
of the Treaty of Peace;
it is binding in the
same manner as the Treaty and shall come into
force with the signat
ure of the Treaty of
Peace.
In faith whereof the plenipotent
iaries of the Contracting Parties have signed this present
Protocol.
Riga, March 18, 1921.
(L. S.) JEAN DABSKI.
(L. S.) STANISLAS KAUZIK.
(L. S.) EDOUARD LECHOWICZ.
(L. S.) HENRI STRASBURGER.
(L. S.) LÉON WASILEWSKI.
(L. S.) A. JOFFE.
(L. S.) GANETSKI.
(L. S.) E. KVIRING.
(L. S.) G. KOTCHOUBINSKI.
(L. S.) OBOLENSKI.
[Quelle: League of Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 6, 1921, p. 123-169.]
Polska